Route III: East and Northeast Mecklenburg
Route III is approximately 60 miles long. Allow three
hours driving time, with extra time for a stop at the Hezekiah Alexander
House or a picnic at Reedy Creek Park.
Click on the map to browse
The eastern section of Mecklenburg County
today is a varied patchwork of new residential developments and old
communities. In the southeast, subdivisions have sprung up as an extension
of the thrust of Charlotte's New South Neighborhoods of the early twentieth
century. In the northeast, new housing has been built in response to the
presence of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (formerly
Charlotte College) that moved to its present site in 1961. Yet amid the
suburban estates and new highways the story of the county's history can
still be read.
Route III begins at the Hezekiah Alexander House on Shamrock Dr.
- From I-77 take the exit for I-85 North. Exit at Sugar Creek Rd. and
turn right. Continue on Sugar Creek Rd. until it merges with Eastway Dr.
where you bear right. At the traffic lights, turn left onto Shamrock Dr.
The Alexander homesite is about .5 miles on your right.
- From Charlotte, drive east on Trade St. Turn left onto Kings Rd.
Kings Rd. becomes Central Ave. Turn left at Eastway Dr., and then right
onto Shamrock Dr. The Alexander homesite is about .5 miles on your right.
The Hezekiah Alexander House is built of stone and is the oldest
dwelling still standing in Mecklenburg County. Completed in 1774, this
"Pennsylvania Style" house is listed in the National Register of Historic
Places. The house has been faithfully restored and carefully refurnished
with authentic Piedmont Carolina antiques.
The Hezekiah Alexander House
Born in Maryland in 1728, Hezekiah apprenticed as a blacksmith and farmed
property in Pennsylvania before moving his family to Mecklenburg in the
1760's. The Alexanders joined many other Scots-Irish Presbyterians in the
North Carolina "back country."
Hezekiah Alexander was a signer of the legendary May 20, 1775 Mecklenburg
Declaration of Independence, He helped draft the North Carolina State
Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Hezekiah was an elder in the
Sugaw Creek Presbyterian Church; a co-founder of the original Queens
College; a member of the Committee of Safety; a Magistrate and a Justice of
the Peace. During the Revolutionary War he served as an officer and
quartermaster of the local patriot militia.
Tours of the house, reconstructed log kitchen and spring house are
offered Tuesday through Fridays at 1:15 & 3:15 and Saturdays and Sundays at
2:15 & 3:15. For more information please call (704) 568-1774.
Return to Shamrock Dr. and
turn right. Drive 1.5 miles to the intersection with Sharon Amity. Notice
the house to the left, across the intersection.
2. This was the
home of Hezekiah's grandson. It was built in 1903 by Neal Somers
Alexander and his wife Ida Jane Caldwell to replace their earlier one-story
dwelling. Like his grandfather, Alexander ran a large cotton farm, and his
success is reflected in this imposing house. Notice its predominantly Queen
Anne style, including features such as the asymmetrical facade, the complex
roof arrangement with its conical roof, the wooden shingles on the front
gable, and the extensive porch. When it was built, this house was just like
the grand merchants' mansions in Uptown Charlotte.
N. S. Alexander House
Continue straight across the
intersection with Sharon Amity. Turn left at the stop sign onto Hickory
Grove Rd. At the traffic light at E. Harris Blvd., turn right onto E. Harris
Blvd. Continue on E. Harris Blvd., crossing Albemarle Rd. At the traffic
light with Idlewild Rd. , (not Idlewild Rd N.) turn left onto Idewild Rd. In
the next five miles you will leave the suburbs behind and enter a more rural
landscape. After 4.8 miles look out for a white, weatherboard chapel on your
right at a bend in the road.
3. The Morning Star Lutheran congregation, including many German
members, was organized in this area as early as 1775, only twenty five years
after the first Presbyterian church was organized in the county. For many
years this was one of the strongest churches in the county.
Continue on Idlewild for
another .7 miles (crossing the intersection with Hwy 51). Turn left onto
Thompson Rd. and pause to view the one story house behind you across
4. Note the emphasis on gables in this vernacular farmhouse. The
house is said to be constructed of heart of pine cut on the property,
probably by Bernum Sustare, who resided in the house in the 1890s.
Continue on Thompson Rd. Turn
right at the intersection with Lawyers Rd., and then almost immediately left
onto Bain School Rd. 1 mile down the road, notice a grand old farmhouse on
house was erected in the 1880s by John Calvin Wilson, whose descendants
lived here for three generations. The high pitched front gable roof and
two-story porch give the house rather grand proportions.
John C. Wilson House
Just ahead you will see the
Philadelphia Presbyterian Church to your right and Bain School to your left.
6. The original part of this building was erected in 1825 to 1826.
It was the Philadelphia Presbyterian Church's third meetinghouse in
fifty-five years, making this one of the original seven Presbyterian
churches to be established in the county before 1800. The building of a
church was of course a community project. It is thought that the German
settlers from the Morning Star congregation taught the locals here how to
manufacture their own brick for their new sanctuary, and local tradition
states that each church member had to manufacture bricks in proportion to
the size of his or her family. In 1915 extensive additions were made to the
old sanctuary, but it can still be seen clearly as the central section of
the expanded church.
The church was constructed in
Flemish bond--alternating headers (the
short end of the brick) with stretchers (the
long side of the brick) in each row. Flemish bond was more costly in terms
of bricks, but added stability and prestige to the building. If a building
is constructed in this bond it usually indicates considerable age.
7. When Bain Academy was built across the road
from the church in 1889 it was one of very few high schools in the county.
From the beginning, Mecklenburg settlers placed a high premium on education.
Initially the Presbyterian churches took on that function, and it was common
for an old sanctuary to become the local schoolhouse or for ministers to
teach classes in their own homes.
From as early as 1840 the state began to provide basic
education, but these early public schools were simple one- and two-room
schoolhouses, often with only one teacher. They did not include secondary
education of any kind. Once again it was the Presbyterian churches that got
involved in providing the education they felt was important. Privately owned
academies, such as this one founded by the Philadelphia church, were
extremely important as stepping stones to further education. The academy
buildings are still being used today as Bain Elementary School. Try to
determine which part of the building was the original school.
Turn left to continue on Bain
School Rd. passing between the school and the graveyard. At the junction
with Hwy 51, also the Matthews-Mint Hill Road, turn right, and then
immediately left onto Hillside Rd. Just behind the new bank you will see a
small frame building.
Dr. Whitley's Office
8. The doctor who practiced in this modest wooden office delivered
6,784 babies during his forty years as a country doctor--including twelve of
his own. Dr. Ayer Whitley replaced Mint Hill's first doctor in 1908, and he
and his wife Esther took up the old doctor's residence on Fairview Rd. (now
demolished). He had this building erected as an office on the grounds of the
old house, and it was moved here in 1986 by the Mint Hill Historical
Society. Patients were received at the front of the building, and there were
two examination rooms to the rear. Originally there was even a pharmacy
attached to the front, where Dr. Whitley mixed his own medicines. Although
the doctor's practice was a large one, with other offices in Concord and
Monroe, and his hours long (he made house calls twenty-four hours a day) his
family could not depend solely on his income. Many patients paid with
livestock and produce, and none were ever refused treatment for lack of
funds. Therefore, the Whitley household was always busy tending the garden,
chickens, pigs, and cattle. It is interesting to note that in 1909, at the
beginning of his career here, Dr. Whitley charged $4.50 for delivering a
baby. By the 1940s, towards the end of his long practice, the fee had risen
Turn around and return to the
Matthews-Mint Hill Rd. and turn left. Take the next right onto Fairview Rd.
9. Just past the intersection you will notice a small cluster of
late-nineteenth-century homes, near where Dr. Whitley used to live. With the
location of the academy nearby, a small community thrived here.
In about a mile, take the left
turn onto Brief Rd. After a farther 1.5 miles turn left again onto Arlington
Church Rd. After a mile, you will drive by a large house on your right with
an old store opposite.
10. The house, store, and church for which the road is named were
all connected with one man, Eli H. Hinson. He bought the house, built the
store, and founded the Baptist Church down the road in the late nineteenth
century. Extensive changes to the house in the 1940s have disguised one of
the oldest houses in the county, built by Colonel Kerr, a Revolutionary War
veteran, in 1786. What we see as the front of the house was originally the
rear, and several wings have been added to the earlier Flemish bond
structure, but with a little imagination one can imagine the traditional
Mecklenburg farmhouse underneath: a one room deep, two story high house with
side gables, external end chimneys, and a central entrance hall flanked by
two rooms. Architectural historians call this an "I" house, and it is very
common in the county.
The bricks for the store opposite, as for Arlington
Baptist Church, were manufactured here under the guidance of Mr. Hinson. The
store is said to have sold everything imaginable--from thimbles to coffins!
Continue on Arlington Church
Rd. You will pass Arlington Baptist Church on your left.
11. In contrast with its success today, the Baptist faith had a
slow start in Mecklenburg County. In 1880, when Hinson founded this church,
the only other Baptist churches were in Charlotte, and even First Baptist
Church on Tryon St. was so poor that it could not afford hymn books. You
will notice that the brickwork here is different from the
Flemish bond seen at the Philadelphia Church. This pattern is called
common bond: single rows of headers were divided by five or six rows of
stretchers. This was a cheaper method of construction, but still gave the
building stability. (Most brick buildings today are constructed in
running bond, where the rows are all stretchers. This is by far the most
economic, but it is unstable and requires a supporting frame.)
Mr. Hinson is buried in the graveyard next to the church,
perhaps in one of his own coffins.
Continue on Arlington Church
Rd. Turn left at the stop sign onto Cabarrus Rd. Then turn left onto
Albemarle Rd. (Hwy 24). At the first right, turn onto Rocky River Church
Rd., and then after .8 miles, turn left onto Camp Stewart Rd. Look out for a
house and farm on your right after .3 miles; the house is set back from the
road behind the trees.
12. This house is another typical Mecklenburg farmhouse from the
pre-Civil War period. Can you see the similarities between it and the
Kerr-Hinson house on Arlington Church Rd.?
Continue on Camp Stewart Rd.
At the junction with Harrisburg Rd. turn left and after about half a mile
take the next major right turn onto Robinson Church Rd. After 1.5 miles,
turn right onto Hood Rd. Look carefully for the White Oak Plantation house
on your left and behind a curtain of trees .3 miles past the intersection.
White Oak Plantation house, the centerpiece of a major cotton
plantation, was very much the exception to the rule when it was built in
1792. In turn-of-the-century Mecklenburg, most pioneer families in the
county farmed a relatively small acreage, depending mainly on family labor.
The majority of farmers owned very few slaves if any at all, and there was a
good deal of anti-slavery sentiment in the area, especially among those of
The Federal style plantation house that you are looking
at was one of only a handful of large plantations in the county at this
time. Its builder, William Johnston, served in the colonial forces during
the Revolutionary War and fought in the decisive battle of King's Mountain,
which occurred in nearby York County, South Carolina, in October 1780. In
1784, he purchased a large tract of land here, but he did not build the
house until eight years later.
The location is a classic one, on a rise of land, facing
south, and near a creek. The Federal style architecture of the house is
simple but elegant, reflecting both the character of the area and the time,
for it developed in reaction to the more ornate Georgian architecture
associated with British rule. Little expense was spared--the walls are
one-foot thick--but there is also little elaboration. Johnston's standing in
Mecklenburg society is indicated by the fact that his daughter married
Hezekiah Alexander Jr., whose father's house you saw at the beginning of
Continue on Hood Rd, crossing
the intersection with Plaza Rd. extension. One mile after the intersection
you will see the house on the left which gives the road its name.
14. John M. Hood built the first story of this frame
house in the 1870s on the site of an earlier log house. It was common for
those of more modest means than Johnston of White Oak to build gradually,
adding to their original homes as the need arose or funds became available.
Certainly in this house it is clear that nothing was wasted. A frame
structure which was used as the boys bedroom was rolled to the back of the
house to become the kitchen in the 1910s, and when Pinehill's one-room
schoolhouse was vacated, the building was rolled onto the Hood's land for
storage space. The school house can still be seen just to the rear of the
old house. Until 1923 it accommodated grades 1 to 7, with as many as thirty
students from the local community at a time. Some one-room school houses
continued to operate in the county until the 1940s. You will see one on
At the intersection with Rocky
River Rd., turn left. After .4 miles you will pass the Hodges house to your
15. Family tradition holds that Eugene Wilson Hodges drew the
plans for this house himself, and used lumber off the land to build it in
1908. You will notice that he used the traditional "I" house form, but
embellished it with fashionable features--a large wrap-around porch with
classical posts, and chimneys hidden in the rear.
Continue on Rocky River Rd.
After .8 miles you will see the entrance to Reedy Creek Park on your left.
The park is an excellent site for a picnic and has bathroom facilities,
playing fields, and woodland trails. Immediately past the park take the left
fork onto Grier Rd. Cross the intersection with E. Harris Blvd. and at the
next intersection, turn right onto Newell-Hickory Grove Rd. Just where you
cross the railroad tracks, turn right onto Old Concord Rd. After .2 miles,
turn left onto Torrence Grove Church Rd. At the end of the road, on your
left, you will see a fine example of a
16. This was one of twenty-six Rosenwald schools erected in the
county during the 1920s and 1930s for the benefit of the rural black
communities. By today's standards it may seem crude, but in comparison with
the one-room school houses of the time it represented significant progress.
Prior to the building of the Rosenwald schools, the educational
opportunities available to rural blacks were meager: schools were only open
for four months of the year; the teachers were not highly educated and were
underpaid. The diary of Charles Chestnut, America's first black novelist,
describes his experiences as a teacher in Mecklenburg County in 1875. After
"climbing fences and crossing cotton fields" he arrived at the church where
he was to teach. "The church itself was a very dilapidated log structure
without a window but there was no need for one, for the cracks between the
logs furnished plentiful supply."
The Rosenwald fund was incorporated in 1917 by
philanthropist Julius Rosenwald, a director of Sears Roebuck and Co. It
offered rural communities the opportunity to build substantial schools for
black education by matching locally raised funds and providing specific
plans for the buildings. Thus, Rosenwald schools were always one story in
height, with plentiful windows catching the east and west light. The fund
even established specific color schemes and seating arrangements.
Return to Old Concord Rd. and
17. Today Newell is considered by many as a wide
spot in the road, but a local saying testifies to a finer past: "If God
returned to earth to improve upon creation, He'd probably start at Newell,
`cause He'd find it just about like He left it." Since its beginnings in
1882, the village has been proud of its strong resistance to change. For
many years it was a prosperous community of farms clustered alongside the
Richmond and Danville railroad (now the Norfolk Southern railroad), with a
store, post office, school, and railroad depot.
Two influential brothers gave the village its name, J. A.
Newell, known as "Squire John" and William Newell. With their
brother-in-law, N.W. Wallace, they founded the community in 1882 and became
a powerful trio in Mecklenburg politics. Wallace held the post of sheriff of
Mecklenburg County for twenty-four years and was reputed to own more
farmland than any other landowner in the county. John Newell became a
justice of the peace at age 18 and was a county commissioner for fourteen
years. He is vividly remembered in local stories as a tall, dignified man,
with heavy jowls and a ruddy complexion. His character matched his
appearance: when questioning a witness in the "courtroom" built off the back
of his barn, his favorite phrase was "Now, boy, I want to hear the truth, by
John's house, formerly at the intersection of Rocky River
and Old Concord roads, is no longer standing, but his brother William's
Turn left onto Old Concord Rd.
After .7 miles, notice the old two-story house to your right across the
railroad tracks. It's just past a nursery and garden center.
18. William B. Newell built this very traditional
house for himself in 1887. He manufactured the bricks for the unusually
sturdy farm house at Back Creek with the help of a laborer. Although the
overall style of the house is traditional, the decorative details were
fashionable for the time. Notice the front center gable and the fluting
detail on the woodwork. Several years after the house was completed William
went into partnership with N.W. Wallace and opened a general store just
across the railway tracks; it's now the Newell post office.
W. B. Newell House
Continue on Old Concord Rd.
another .7 miles, and turn right onto McLean Rd. After 1 mile, turn left at
the stop sign onto John Russell Rd. At the next intersection turn left again
onto Back Creek Church Rd. You will pass Back Creek A.R.P. Church on your
right, just before recrossing the railroad tracks.
Back Creek A.R.P. Church is named for the nearby creek, where bricks
used to build the sanctuary were manufactured, using local clay and wood
molds, between 1869 and 1871. According to locals it was "a name not
welcomed but which stuck fast." The history of the congregation is older
than its church, and dates back to 1801. When the original Bethany
congregation, located to the south of here, split in 1841, the northern
members chose Back Creek as their new location. By 1847, the community was
recorded as having thirty-five families and ninety communicants. Long time
member and church elder John McLaughlin (postmaster of Newell) remembers
when the church was heated by two wood stoves and lit by hand-pumped gas
lights. The old sanctuary now serves as a Sabbath school and is closest to
the road. Look for the scars of the Charleston earthquake of 1886 which
severely cracked the walls. An iron bolt now ties the building together and
can be seen if you look carefully; it is located at the south end of the
church, just under the eaves.
Cross the railroad tracks and
pause at the junction with Hwy 49.
20. What appears to be a shack in the field opposite you is in
fact an early-twentieth-century schoolhouse. It used to be located behind
Back Creek Church.
Turn left onto Hwy 49
(University Blvd.) After about 1.8 miles on Hwy 49 (University Blvd.), turn
right onto Mallard Creek Church Rd. at the traffic light. You will pass by
the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Continue on Mallard Creek
Church Rd., and cross Hwy 29. Just past this intersection, catch a glimpse
of the brick house to your right and up a long drive.
The house is one of the oldest in the county, and dates from 1799 when
John Orr had it constructed. However, it is best remembered for its later
residents, the Alexander family. William Tasse Alexander started buying land
in the area when he was just seventeen years old, and acquired the house in
the 1820s. He populated it with four successive wives and thirteen children.
Alexander was no ordinary Mecklenburg farmer, but one of the thirty or so
planters in the county with over thirty slaves to work his 1,000 acres. By
this time, the success of cotton farming had encouraged smaller farmers to
purchase slaves also, but usually only ones or twos. Alexander, then, was
among those whites who felt the aftermath of the Civil War most keenly,
since much of his capital was invested in slaves (up to $2,000 for male
slaves and $500 for female slaves). To escape the reality of the late 1860s,
Alexander took to the bottle and died in 1870, leaving the house to his son.
The W. T. Alexander House
When William Alexander II went riding he often passed
Newell School where his future wife, Mary, happened to be teaching.
Education formed a large part of her life, and in 1957 she donated five
acres of land to Charlotte College for a road. The main thoroughfare on the
UNCC campus is named in her honor. This extraordinary woman completed
courses at four different colleges after she turned ninety!
Continue on Mallard Creek
Church Rd. to Mallard Creek Presbyterian Church.
22. The congregation here dates to about 1824. The brick sanctuary
replaced a log structure in 1856 and its side elevations can still be seen
amid later additions--note the long windows typical of early meetinghouses.
Locally, Mallard Creek Presbyterian Church is famous for its popular autumn
barbecue. The tradition began in 1929 to help defray the costs of recent
remodeling, but for years it has provided an opportunity for political
pamphleteering, making it an important event in the local political
calendar. Try it.
At the traffic signal turn
right onto Mallard Creek Rd. After one mile, you will pass the old Mallard
Creek School on your right.
23. This is the site of the Mallard Creek barbecue, an
important community social gathering site. It also served the community as a
school for much of the twentieth century. It was constructed in the 1920s
and follows the model of a Rosenwald school, though it never received a
Rosenwald grant and was always a white school. The high hipped roof of
standing seam metal and the numerous windows are typical features copied
from the Rosenwald blueprints.
After .4 miles, turn left onto
Johnston-Oehler Rd. Enjoy the winding country drive between here and
Prosperity Church Rd. When you reach the junction, turn left onto Prosperity
Church Rd. After .5 miles, look our for an imposing barn and fine old farm
house to your right.
24. This was the home of one of Mallard Creek's first pastors, the
Reverend Pharr. Pharr was also the pastor of Ramah Church to the north. The
house pre-dates the 1850s and follows the traditional Mecklenburg style. It
is supported on stone piers, a clue to its great age. Considerable
alterations have been made to the house, however, to update it over the
Turn right at the junction
with Mallard Creek Rd. and follow it for about 3.5 miles into the village of
Derita. Just before you get to the village, notice the house on your left
behind a row of pine trees.
25. This elegant house dates from 1910. Notice the
sawtooth shingles decorating the front facing
gables, and the generous porch, both
Queen Anne-style features which were still popular at the time.
At the stop sign turn left
onto Sugar Creek Rd. and pass through the village of Derita on your way
26. Like Newell, Derita grew up as a railway community alongside
the Atlantic, Tennessee and Ohio line which opened in 1860. The line was
sacrificed almost immediately for the Confederate war effort, and was not
re-opened until 1874. Derita was the site of a rural post office and was
named for Derita Lewis the friend of the first postmaster, Amos Rumple.
During the 1920s the village built one of the county's Rosenwald schools,
and locals still feel a pride in the old building, even though it has not
been used in years. (If you wish to see another example of a Rosenwald
school, the Derita school is to your right, about .25 miles north along
Sugar Creek Rd.)
Continue on Sugar Creek Rd.
crossing I-85. At the major intersection with Tryon St. (Hwy 49) look at the
Sugaw Creek Church and old school house on your right.
27. Two hundred years ago Sugaw Creek Presbyterian Church was a
principal gathering place in the county for the zealous Scots-Irish
settlers. As early as 1755, people traveled miles to worship here in brush
arbors, crude canopies made from fresh-cut pine branches. Hezekiah
Alexander, for instance, was an elder of the church. The name of the church
was derived from the Indian word, "Sugaw," meaning a group of huts. The new
settlers, however, appropriated it for themselves, and it came to represent
the essence of Presbyterianism on the frontier. The congregation received
its first pastor in 1758, the fiery Rev. Alexander Craighead.
Craighead was the only official pastor in the county between 1758 and his
death in 1766, but this did not seem to daunt his impassioned spirit as he
traveled on horseback between his seven congregations. His influence covered
a wide area, and he is remembered as the "Father of Independence in
Mecklenburg County." He was buried in the first Sugaw Creek graveyard and
for years tall sassafras tress were the only adornments on his grave.
The 150-year old school house to the front of the church
attests to a commitment to education among the early Presbyterian settlers.
Promising boys were given classical instruction here at the
Sugaw Creek Academy from the 1760s. This plain Federal-style brick
school house was constructed in 1837 to house fifteen students, replacing an
earlier log building.
Sugaw Creek Academy
In 1765, three years after the county was officially
recognized, there was a conflict here between Lord Selwyn's surveyor, Henry
McCulloh, and the local population. Lord Selwyn had been granted title to
all of the land in the county by King George II and had instructed McCulloh
to survey it and settle it with one person per 200 acres. Local settlers
felt differently. They had already claimed their land with their sweat and
toil. A group of about 100 men met McCulloh "with guns in their hands" and
threatened to "tie him neck and heels and carry him over the Yadkin" river.
The situation was saved by McCulloh's good sense to bargain with the leader
of the group, Tom Polk. McCulloh granted Polk a tract of land one mile
square for 90 pounds sterling, and instructed him to build a town with a
courthouse, prison, and stocks. It was a historic moment for the county,
since it secured Polk's own home at the crossing of two Indian trails (now
Trade and Tryon streets) as the future county seat and city of Charlotte.
Tom Polk and his fellows must have been trying to curry
favor when they chose "Mecklenburg" for the county name, "Charlotte" for the
county seat, and "Tryon" for the principal road. King George III's new bride
was the German princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, and Tryon was the British
governor of the colony of North Carolina.
Turn right past the school
onto Tryon St. After the traffic light at Craighead St. look carefully for a
house on your right, partially hidden by trees. Turn right into the drive to
28. This elegant plantation house was called "Frew's
Folly" when it was built in circa 1815, possibly because of its grand
interior woodwork. Archibald Frew was a tax collector, which may explain why
he built so lavishly by backcountry standards. The house had been associated
with several of the county's notable families: the Caldwells and the
Davidsons. It was locally noted for its fine gardens and a horse riding
tournament that featured a rather dangerous lance throwing competition! For
tour information for Historic
Rosedale, call (704) 335-0325.
This concludes the Eastern
Mecklenburg loop. To return to Charlotte, turn right onto Tryon St., and
follow it into the center of town. As you pass under the second railway
bridge after about 2 miles, keep to the left to continue on Tryon St. To
return to I-77, turn right onto Tryon St. After about 2 miles, as you pass
under the second railway bridge, bear to the right. At the next junction,
make a shallow right turn to get on to the freeway entrance ramp. Shortly
after joining the Brookshire Freeway (I-277), you will reach I-77.